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Free Negroes licensed in St. Louis, Missouri in 1835

Background

The St. Louis County Court, founded in 1824, was responsible for granting licenses to free Negroes (the term then used), enabling them to reside in the state beginning in 1835. Descriptive information included the individual’s age, height, personal appearance and occupation. The records also list those denied licenses.

The 1830 federal census showed 569 free blacks living within Missouri, and most of them lived in the St. Louis area. Due to the state’s pro-slavery sentiment, the Missouri General Assembly approved legislation on March 14, 1835 requiring free Negroes to register for a license within their county of residence. If a registrant moved to another county, he or she would have to apply in that county also. If a license was not approved, the free Negro was told to leave the state.

The following information is extracted from the St. Louis County Court Records, Volume 1. Every attempt has been made to copy the information exactly as it appears on the records. These records are available at the St. Louis County Library History & Genealogy Department on microfilm roll SLCCR-2. The first six rolls of this series, volumes 1-23 (1824-1877) are a typed transcription of the original records plus indexing created by the WPA.

Lookups in these records are available. Please review the library’s lookup policy.

References

The Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri. St. Louis: Chambers, Knapp & Co, 1840, 413-417.

Bellamy, Donnie D. “Free Blacks in Antebellum Missouri, 1820 – 1860.” Missouri Historical Review, 67:2, 198 - 226.

Trexler, Harrison Anthony. Slavery in Missouri 1804 – 1865. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1914.

Greene, Lorenzo J., Antonio F. Holland & Gary Kremer. “The Role of the Negro in Missouri History 1719-1970,” Official Manual: State of Missouri, 1973-1974.

Last Name First Name Age Height Personal Appearance Occupation Page SLCL # Vol.
Adams Jane 23 yr 4 mos 5' 6" Light mulatto woman with a flat nose and wide teeth Washerwoman 463 SLCCR-2 1
Alexander Catherine 54 5' 4" Black Woman very corpulent without teeth in front very flat nose Cook 460 SLCCR-2 1
Allar Baptiste 31 yr 11 mos 3 days 5' 11" Black man with a long face and thick lips Laborer 464 SLCCR-2 1
Anderson Cloe 47 yr 10 mos 19 days 5' 5" Slim Black Woman Washerwoman 464 SLCCR-2 1
Anderson Jane 41 5' 4" Light Black woman strong built Milk maid 459 SLCCR-2 1
Anderson Mary 25 5' 1" Black Woman of good appearance washerwoman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Applebay Janes 24 5' 5" Black Woman with thick lips Seamstress 461 SLCCR-2 1
Arnold Sancho 57 5' 4" Light Blk man with a flat long head Drayman 459 SLCCR-2 1
Aubuchon Adelaide 54 5' 2" Light Mulatto woman with black eyes washer woman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Aubuchon Aurore 38 5' 5" Dark Mulatto woman of Good appearance Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Aubuchon Clarice 42 5' 7" Light mulatto woman with black eyes Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Aubuchon Edward 23 6' Rather dark mulato man with thick lips Boat hand 462 SLCCR-2 1
Aubuchon Zabette 50 5' 4" Dark Mulatto woman of good appearance Washer Woman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Ball Mingo 36 5' 7" Black man, with a flat nose, stour built Drayman 462 SLCCR-2 1
Beauvais Judith 34 5' 4" light mulatto woman with a freckled face Wash. woman 459 SLCCR-2 1
Beckwith Matilda 30 5' 6" very light mulatto woman well made Washerwoman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Benite Felicite 29 5' 7" Light mulatto woman with regular features Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Bent Mary Jane 21 5' 1" Light Black woman with a scar on her forehead and on her right brow Chambermaid 463 SLCCR-2 1
Bernier Anthony 21 5' 6" light mulatto man barber 457 SLCCR-2 1
Bertrand Matilda 40 5' 3" Light Mulatto woman well made Wash. woman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Bird Delcey 30 5' 6" Black Woman with Large Nose & Thick Lips Chambermaid 461 SLCCR-2 1
Bissell Eliza 27 5' 7" Light Mulatto woman, small features and large frame Washer Woman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Bissell Julia 18 yr 9 mos 5' 8" Light mulatto woman Strong built Chamber maid 458 SLCCR-2 1
Boileau Elizabeth 21 yr 11 mos 16 days 5' 1" Light mulatto woman Washerwoman 463 SLCCR-2 1
Brant Ester 58 5' 1" black woman, with a scar near the left eye Washerwoman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Broadwater Francis 35 5' 2" Black man with Long head Store servant 460 SLCCR-2 1
Broadwater Sarah 33 4' 8" Black woman light frame WashWwoman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Brown Matilda 25 5' 1 1/2" light mulatto woman with a small scar on her forehead Wash.woman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Butcher Agatha 29 5' 2" Light Mmulatto woman Stout made Washerwoman 461 SLCCR-2 1
Butler David 33 5' 8" Black man with a flat nose and a large scar on the back of his head Cook 460 SLCCR-2 1
Camp Angeline 35 5' 2" Dark mulatto woman without teeth in front Seamstress 459 SLCCR-2 1
Camp Jefferson 29 yr 11 mos 6' 1" Light mulatto square built Carpenter 459 SLCCR-2 1
Camp Racher 69 5' Black woman with large features Nurse 462 SLCCR-2 1
Charleville Louis 31 5' 11" Light Mulatto man well made Butcher 461 SLCCR-2 1
Clark Matilda 36 yr 11 mos 23 days 5' 3" very black woman with the third finger of her left hand deformed washerwoman 463 SLCCR-2 1
Crevier Antoint 27 5' 8" light mulatto man barber 456 SLCCR-2 1
Crevier Catherine 70 5' 5" Black woman, large frame Seamstress 461 SLCCR-2 1
Dallam Ann 22 4' 9" Light mulatto woman with regular features house serv. 459 SLCCR-2 1
Desire Jacques 40 5' 7" Black man Pock marked with thick lips Pilot 461 SLCCR-2 1
Desire Pelague 30 5' 7" Mulatto Woman born in St. Louis, wife of Jacques Desire Seamstress 461 SLCCR-2 1
Doctor alias Henry 88 5' 5" Light mulatto man with a round face Lawyer 460 SLCCR-2 1
Duncan Fanny 56 5' 2" Blk woman stout built Milk maid 459 SLCCR-2 1
Duncan Jermiah 27 5' 2" Rather dark mulatto woman with the end of two of the fingers of her left hand deformed washerwoman 462 SLCCR-2 1
Duncan Jerry 40 5' 10" Light black man stout built store servant 458 SLCCR-2 1
Duncan Jonathan 36 5' 9" Black man a soar on the back of his head dairy man 458 SLCCR-2 1
Duncan Polly 40 5' 4" Light Black Thick set Woman House servant 461 SLCCR-2 1
Duncan Shadrack 34 yr 10 mos 5' 6" Black man with a scar on his right hand and a very small scar on his chin Drayman 462 SLCCR-2 1
Duncan Vincent 47 5' 7" Black man with a blemish in his left eye Drayman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Easton Peggy 47 5' 4 1/2" black woman of good appearance Washerwoman 461 SLCCR-2 1
Edgar Mary 21 4' 10" Pock marked mulatto woman washer woman 463 SLCCR-2 1
Farrar Betsey 35 5' 1" Rather Dark Mulatto with a scar on the left side of  her neck WasherWoman 461 SLCCR-2 1
Flore Florence 34 5' 4" Mulatto woman with a freckled face Seamstress 464 SLCCR-2 1
Flore Marie Pierichs 50 5' 4" Copper colored mulatto woman wash woman 458 SLCCR-2 1
Gagne Bazile 28 yr 11 mos  28 days 6' Mulatto man with a full face Farmer 463 SLCCR-2 1
Gobel Angelique 19 5' A very light mulatto woman wife of P Gobel Seamstress 458 SLCCR-2 1
Gobel Pierre 21 5' 11" Light mulatto Drayman 458 SLCCR-2 1
Gratiot Polly 40 5' 4" light mulatto woman washer woman 455 SLCCR-2 1
Groslouis Marie 39 5' 1 1/2" light mulatto woman, wife of Gabriel Hallam wash.woman 458 SLCCR-2 1
Guillory Hyacinthe 54 5' 3" Light Mulatto Woman with a Small face Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Guillory Lucille 24 5' 1" White mulatto woman with small features Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Guillory Matilda 32 5' 4" Light mulatto woman with a scar on her upper lip Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Haines John 33 5' 6" Light Black man Pock Marked Cook 460 SLCCR-2 1
Hallam Gabriel 32 yr 9 mon 5' 9" a light mulatto man with curled hair Barber 458 SLCCR-2 1
Hallam Zelina 20 5' 4" Light mulatto woman, wife of Gabriel Hallam Seamstress 458 SLCCR-2 1
Hamilton Jacob 22 5' 7" Light mulatto Man of reserved appearance Butcher 461 SLCCR-2 1
Harding Eli 29 5' 7" Dark mulatto man rather slim in appearance Drayman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Harris James 44 5' 9" Straight dark Mullato man Cook 460 SLCCR-2 1
Henry alias Doctor 88 5' 5" Light mulatto man with a round face Lawyer 460 SLCCR-2 1
Hill Eugenie 25 5' 3" Dark Mulatto woman Large Frame washer woman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Hopkins George 31 yr 6 mos 18 days 5' 9" Light mulatto man with a scar on his nose and front part of his head Steam Boat Hand 463 SLCCR-2 1
Jeannette Susanne 58 5' 3" Black woman with her hands burnt Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Johnson George 35 5' 6 1/2" copper colored mulatto barber 457 SLCCR-2 1
Johnson Henry 33 yr 10 mos 5' 10" Light mulatto man with rosy cheeks and bushy head Steam Boat hand 463 SLCCR-2 1
Johnson Maria 19 yr 6 mos 5' 3" Light mulatto woman with regular features well made housekeeper 462 SLCCR-2 1
Johnson Nancy 51 5' 2" Black Woman with her teeth set apart washerwoman 462 SLCCR-2 1
Johnson William 27 yr 4 mos 5' 9" blank barber 456 SLCCR-2 1
Jones Nicholas 32 5' 7" Light black man pock marked House servant 459 SLCCR-2 1
Joyal Theresa 37? 5' 3" Light mulatto woman Milk Maid 460 SLCCR-2 1
Kennedy Apauline 32 5' 4" Light mulatto woman Light frame Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Kennedy Washington 28 5' 10 1/2" Light mulatto man large frame Steam Boat engineer 460 SLCCR-2 1
Kerr Nelson 27 5' 6" Black Man light made Draryman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Labadie Antoine 31 5' 9" light mulatto  man Butcher 457 SLCCR-2 1
Labadie Genevieve 70 5' light mulatto woman seamstress 458 SLCCR-2 1
Labadie Joseph 36 5' 9" blank butcher 456 SLCCR-2 1
Labadie Julie 24 5' dark Mulatto woman with a round face Milk Maid 460 SLCCR-2 1
Labadie Pierre 23 5' ? light mulatto man Butcher 457 SLCCR-2 1
Labuche Adelaide 24 yr 7 mos 11 days 5' 2" Light mulatto woman with a freckled face Seamstress 463 SLCCR-2 1
Labuche Genevieve 37 5' Mulatto woman Seamstress 464 SLCCR-2 1
Lacroix Eliza 24 4' 11" dark mulatto woman thick made washer woman 459 SLCCR-2 1
Lami Elsie 54 yr 5 mos 5' 3" copper Colored mulatto woman with small features WasherWoman 461 SLCCR-2 1
Lariviere Marie Pieriche 39 5' 5" a mulatto woman Seamstress 458 SLCCR-2 1
Leclerc Baptiste 61 yr 9 mos 5' 9" Rather dark mulatto having a wound in his right leg Barber 462 SLCCR-2 1
Lecomte Judy 50 5' 3" Black corpulent woman wash woman 458 SLCCR-2 1
Lee Joseph 43 5' 8" mulatto man barber 457 SLCCR-2 1
Lewis Sophia 22 5' 3" Black woman with large features House servant 462 SLCCR-2 1
Lucas Nancy 44 5' Black woman small frame, Wife of Nelson Lucas Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Lucas Nelson 45 5' 9" Black man with his left ear cropped Drayman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Lucas Sip 45 5' 5" black negro man dry (?) man 456 SLCCR-2 1
Marshall Susan 32 5' 5" a black woman, wife of Robt., a slave of E. Tracy Cook and Washer woman 458 SLCCR-2 1
Meachum John Berry 45 yr 8 mos 13 cays 5' 6" black man with a round face and head cooper 460 SLCCR-2 1
Meachum Mary 34 yr 1 mos 12 days 5' 4" Light mulatto woman well made, wife of J Berry Meachum Milk Maid 460 SLCCR-2 1
Mitchell John 34 5' 7" black man with a scar on the nose, forehead and right hand Hostler 459 SLCCR-2 1
Moore Anthony 55 5' 4" black man house servant 457 SLCCR-2 1
Morette Desire 31 yr 5 mos 11 days 4' 10" Dark Mulatto woman with a small scar on the end of her nose Washerwoman 461 SLCCR-2 1
Morin Antoin 24 yr 3 mos 8 days 5; 10" Light mulatto man, Large frame Drayman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Morin Baptiste 26 yr 7 mos 22 days 5' 7" mulatto man well made Laborer 463 SLCCR-2 1
Morin Josephin 28 yr 6 mos 5' 2" Very light mulatto with small features Seamstress 460 SLCCR-2 1
Musick Jane 29 yr 9 mos 5' 3" Light black woman with a scar in her forehead WasherWoman 461 SLCCR-2 1
Nelson Mary 19 5' 5" Black woman with Black eyes washerwoman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Price Lewis 35 5' 6" Black man, blind of the right eye drayman 459 SLCCR-2 1
Pryor John 21 5' 5" Albino Negro Driver 464 SLCCR-2 1
Quarles James. 52 5' 9" blk man well made his under teeth projecting Laborer 459 SLCCR-2 1
Quarles Kitty 45 5' 4" Rather Dark mulatto woman the thumb and thumb nail of her left hand deformed  WasherWoman 461 SLCCR-2 1
Ramsey Delphine 32 5' 7" light mulatto woman Strong Built washer woman 459 SLCCR-2 1
Randal Haskins 40 5' 6" Dark Mulatto man slim built with teeth missing in front drayman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Randell Harriet 30 5' 6" Dark Mulatto woman heavy made, wife of Thos Kins Randell washer woman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Remis Louise 27 5' blank washer woman 456 SLCCR-2 1
Richardson Lucy 45 5' 5" Strong Black woman with a scar on her right hand Washer-woman 463 SLCCR-2 1
Robinson William 21 yr 11 mos 5' 5" Black man with a scar on the right jaw House paintr 459 SLCCR-2 1
Rogers Lareine 24 yr 8 mos 5' 1" very light mulatto woman well made Chambermaid 460 SLCCR-2 1
Ronemus Israel 28 5' 7" Black man well made Laborer 459 SLCCR-2 1
Russell Rhody 37 5' 1" Black woman with a prominent mouth washer woman 459 SLCCR-2 1
Rutgers Lewis 33 yr 8 mos 23 days 5' 6" dark mulatto man gardner 456 SLCCR-2 1
Rutgers Pelagie 34 5' 7" Light mulatto slim built, wife of Lewis Rutgers Seamstress 458 SLCCR-2 1
Sappington Joseph 41 5' 10" Black man pock marked with thick lips Laborer 461 SLCCR-2 1
Sappington Lewis 41 5' 10" Black man pock marked with thick lips Laborer 461 SLCCR-2 1
Sarrade Julia 27 yr 9 mos 6 days 5' 4" black woman well made ChamberMaid 460 SLCCR-2 1
Smith Betsey 50 5' 2" black woman with a smiling face washer woman 459 SLCCR-2 1
Smith Nancy 50 5' 5" Black woman strong built Seamstress 459 SLCCR-2 1
Speers Edward 23 5' 9" light mulatto barber 456 SLCCR-2 1
Speers George 47 5' 4" light mulatto Steam Machine engineer 455 SLCCR-2 1
Stokes Kezia 71 5' Black woman with a large scar on her left jaw Seamstress 459 SLCCR-2 1
Stokes Samuel 68 5' 7" Black man with his under jaw projecting House serv. 459 SLCCR-2 1
Taylor Eliza 24 5' 4" very light mulatto with freckled face washerWoman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Tennent Minty 25 5' 5" Black Woman of Good appearance Washerwoman 461 SLCCR-2 1
Tennet Betsey 25 5' 1" Black Woman with a scar on her right temple washer woman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Titus Levina 29 5' 7" Black woman with a scar on her upper lip Washer woman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Vaillant Fanny 28 5' 1" Black Woman with small eyes Washerwoman 461 SLCCR-2 1
Valentine Absalom 33 yr 29  days 5' 4" Mulatto man with a scar on his left thigh and on the end of the fourth finger of the left hand Indian-Trader 463 SLCCR-2 1
Walker James C. 23yr 1 mon 5' 5" Light Blk slim built man Store servant 458 SLCCR-2 1
Washington Tenor 50 5' 3" Lgt. blk colored woman stout built House servant 459 SLCCR-2 1
Wiggins John 38 5' 10" Black man a Stammerer Drayman 460 SLCCR-2 1
Williams Emma 38 4' 10" Black woman with a scar on her right cheek Washerwoman 463 SLCCR-2 1
Wilson Polly 30 5' 3" dark mulatto woman thick made Washer woman 459 SLCCR-2 1